Custom Scope in Spring

Custom Scope in Spring

In this articles, we will discuss Custom Scope in Spring. We will demonstrate how to create and use a Custom scope in a Spring application.

 

Introduction

Spring provides a number of beans scopes. Out of all these scopes, Singleton and Prototype are available for any type of Spring application.Spring also provides few other Bean scopes (e.g Request, Session etc.) which are only available for a specific context (Request scope is only available in web context).

For most of the applications, out of the box, bean scopes will be able to meet our need, however large enterprise applications may require a scope with additional capabilities or features which are not available in these bean scopes.

Let’s take an example of a multi-tenant system where we want to provide bean instance based on the tenant system requesting this instance.To handle all such requirement, Spring provides a way to create a custom scope.

Redefining existing Spring bean scope is not a good practice and not advisable.Additionally, we cannot override singleton and prototype scopes.

 

 

1. Creating Spring Custom Scope 

We need to implement scope interface to create our custom scope in Spring. This interface declares 4 methods.

  • get the object from the scope.
  • remove the object from the scope.
  • destroy the object.

 

1.1 Get an Object from Scope

To get an object from the underlying scope, we need to implement getObject method defined in the scope interface.

As per the method contract, if given object is not found in the underlying spring storage mechanism, we must create and return a new object.

 @Override
    public Object get(String name, ObjectFactory<?> objectFactory) {

        Object scopedObject = tenantScope.get(name);
        
        if (scopedObject == null) {
            scopedObject = objectFactory.getObject();
            tenantScope.put(name, scopedObject);
        }
        return scopedObject;
    }

Let’s cover few important points for the above code

  • We checked if there is an object in the tenant scope for the given name.
  • If no object found, we created a new object using objectFacotry and placed this object in the tenant scope map for the future use and returned this object.

get method is the only method required to have a full implementation. All other method implementations are optional. Please refer to Spring doc for more detail

 

1.2 Register Destruction Callback

the registerdestructioncallback method will be executed when we destroy/ remove an object from the scope.This method is optional. We may need to implement this method if we are planning to define remove method.

 @Override
    public void registerDestructionCallback(String name, Runnable runnable) {
        destructionCallbacks.put(name, runnable);
    }

 

1.3 Removing Object from Scope

To remove object based on the given name, we need to implement remove method defined in the Scope interface.

While removing custom scope object, we need to keep in mind following points

  • In case named object is removed, the method should return removed object or null if no object with given name found.
  • The caller is responsible to execute the callback for the given object and remove it.
  • This is an optional method. We can return “UnsupportedOperationException” if there is no plan to support this method.
 @Override
  public Object remove(String name) {
      Object scopedObject = tenantScope.get(name);
        if (scopedObject != null) {
            tenantScope.remove(name);
            return scopedObject;
        }
        else {
            return null;
        }
  }

 

1.4 Conversation ID

This is optional implementation.It is dependent on the underlying storage mechanism.We can return null if this is not supported.

@Override
  public String getConversationId() {
     return "tenant";
 }

 

1.5 Contextual Object Resolution

This method is useful if our scope supports multiple contextual objects. This is typically implemented by assigning it with a key and value and object assigned with the key will be returned. A common use case if RequestScope in Spring.

@Override
 public Object resolveContextualObject(String s) {
   return null;
 }

 

Here is our complete TenantScope class

public class TenantScope implements Scope {

    private Map<String, Object> tenantScope = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap<>());
    private Map<String, Runnable> destructionCallbacks = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap<String, Runnable>());

    @Override
    public Object get(String name, ObjectFactory<?> objectFactory) {

        Object scopedObject = tenantScope.get(name);

        if (scopedObject == null) {
            scopedObject = objectFactory.getObject();
            tenantScope.put(name, scopedObject);
        }
        return scopedObject;

    }

    @Override
    public Object remove(String name) {

        Object scopedObject = tenantScope.get(name);
        if (scopedObject != null) {
            tenantScope.remove(name);
            return scopedObject;
        }
        else {
            return null;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void registerDestructionCallback(String name, Runnable runnable) {
        destructionCallbacks.put(name, runnable);
    }

    @Override
    public Object resolveContextualObject(String s) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public String getConversationId() {
        return "tenant";
    }
}

 

 

2. Registering Custom Scope

After we created our custom scope, we need to let Spring container know about our custom scope.

To register custom scope with Spring, we need to use registerScope method declared on the ConfigurableBeanFacgtory interface.

void registerScope(java.lang.String scopeName, Scope scope)

Let’s see how to register our custom scope with Spring container

public class CustomBeanFactoryPostProcessor implements BeanFactoryPostProcessor {

    @Override
    public void postProcessBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory factory) throws BeansException {
        factory.registerScope("tenant",new TenantScope());
    }
}

While registering custom scope with Spring container, we need to be aware of following important points

  • The first argument to register method is the unique name with the scope (in our example it is the tenant).
  • We need to pass actual instance which we need to associate with given name as the second argument for this method.

 

As the last step, we need Spring configuration to load our custom BeanFactoryPostProcessor.

@Configuration
public class CustomScopeConfig {   
    public  static BeanFactoryPostProcessor beanFactoryPostProcessor(){
        return  new CustomBeanFactoryPostProcessor();
    }
}

 

3. Using Custom Scope

We created custom scope in Spring, register this custom scope with Spring container.We can use our custom scope by using @Scope annotation and passing custom scope name, alternatively, we can also create a custom annotation to use our custom scope.

Let’s create a simple Bean class for our testing

public class GreetingService {
    public void greeting(){
        System.out.println("Greetings from custom scope");
    }
}

 

3.1 Use Custom Scope by @Scope Annotation

To use new custom scope, we can declare our new bean by using @Scope annotation and passing custom scope name

@Configuration
public class CustomScopeConfig {

    @Bean
    public  static BeanFactoryPostProcessor beanFactoryPostProcessor(){
        return  new CustomBeanFactoryPostProcessor();
    }
}

 

3.2 Use Custom Annotation

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Scope;

@Scope("tenant")
public @interface TenantScoped {
}

//declaration
@Configuration
public class CustomBeanConfig {

    @TenantScoped
    @Bean
    public GreetingService greetingService(){
        return new GreetingService();
    }
}

 

Summary

In this post, we covered Creating Custom Scope in Spring. We learned how to define and use the custom scope in our application.

Umesh

Hello!! I am Umesh- an engineer by profession and a photographer by passion.I like to build stuff on the web using OSS and love to capture the world through my lens.

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